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ACTN3 is the most famous ‘gene for speed’. One particular version of ACTN3 has been found in almost every Olympic sprinter ever tested.
Source: 1000 Genome Project. Global averages for both sexes
The ACTN3 gene encodes α-actinin-3, a protein that has been linked to greater baseline strength, a protective effect against muscle damage, and an increase in fast-twitch muscle fibers. Carriers of the C (R) allele are able to produce the ACTN3 protein.