ACE

A gene for endurance

One version of the ACE gene has been found in elite endurance athletes and every climber tested to date who has ascended over 8,000m. The other version is associated with improved power and strength performance.

ACTN3

A gene for speed

ACTN3 is the most famous ‘gene for speed’. One particular version of ACTN3 has been found in almost every Olympic sprinter ever tested.

ACVR1B

A gene for muscle strength

One variation of ACVR1B has been associated with increased strength.

ADRB2_1

A gene for adrenaline signalling

ADBR2 plays a key role in skeletal muscle, cardiovascular, respiratory, metabolic and hormonal systems.

ADRB2_2

A gene for adrenaline signalling

ADRB2_2 genetic variations are associated with obesity and the effect of weight loss interventions.

AGT

A gene for blood pressure regulation

AGT influences angiotensinogen levels which has associations with skeletal and cardiac muscle growth.

AKT1

A gene associated with aerobic exercise response

A version of this gene that is linked to better resting metabolic factors and greater increases in VO2 max in response to aerobic exercise.

ALDH2

A gene for alcohol metabolism

The rare ALDH2 allele is found more commonly in East Asian populations. It has been associated with the reddening of the face and neck following alcohol intake – known as ‘Asian Flush’.

AMPD1

A gene for energy production

AMPD1 can influence production of ATP and is associated with recovery from exercise and endurance performance.

APOA2

A gene for response to saturated fat intake

A variation in this gene has been associated with a larger response to saturated fat intake and obesity.

APOA5

A gene for blood triglyceride levels

The APOA5 gene helps regulate blood triglyceride levels. FitnessGenes test for a variation of the APOA5 gene which affect levels of the APOA5 molecule in the blood.

BDKRB2

A gene for vascular function

Different variants of this gene lead to a lower or higher expression of this receptor and are associated with hypertension risk.

CKM

A gene related to muscle energy

Different variants of the CKM gene, influencing natural creatine kinase levels, are found more commonly in endurance or strength athletes.

CLOCK

A gene affecting sleep cycle

Many gene variants have been reported to affect the sleep cycle or the circadian clock. Variants of the CLOCK gene are associated with a disturbed circadian rhythm.

CNTF

A gene for nerve activity

Variations in the CNTF gene affect the levels of CNTF protein and are associated with strength gains.

CYP1A2

A gene for caffeine metabolism

Caffeine has been used by athletes for a long time as a performance-enhancing drug. Studies have shown that taking caffeine before exercise improves performance.

Caffeine is a stimulant and the most commonly used drug on the planet. What used to be a chemical only associated with coffee is now in chocolate, ice cream, weight-loss pills, energy and alcoholic drinks, mints, study aids, marshmallows, and non-prescription painkillers. Despite its universal acceptance and widespread availability, overdose is lethal — consumption of as little as a few grams can result in death.

FTO

A gene for appetite

Your genes influence your appetite, satiety (feelings of fullness) and food cravings. Research suggests that carriers of a particular version of the FTO gene are biologically hardwired to eat more, feel hungrier sooner and be more responsive to fatty foods.

HERC2

A gene for eye color

Eye, hair and skin color vary around the world due to the production of a pigment called melanin. HERC2 is one of the genes responsible for melanin production and its effect can be seen directly from your eye color.

HIF1A

A gene for response to low oxygen

One variant of HIF1a was found more frequently in weightlifters, while the other was found more frequently in elite endurance athletes and was associated with a higher increase in VO2 max through aerobic exercise training.

IGF1

A gene for regular growth/development

Variants of IGF1 have been associated with benefits for strength performance.

IGF1_2

A gene for regular growth/development

Variants of the IGF1_2 gene have been associated baseline strength.

IGFBP3

A gene for regulating normal growth/development

Variations in the IGFBP3 gene affect the levels of IGFBP-3 and may affect body composition.

IL15RA

A gene for muscle volume

The IL15RA gene is linked to lean body mass and muscle size (hypertrophy). One version is associated with muscle size and the other is linked to muscle strength in response to resistance-type training.

IL6

A gene for inflammation and recovery

Variations in the IL6 gene can affect levels of IL6, which are associated with susceptibility to inflammatory related diseases.

IL6R

A gene for regulating IL6 activity

Variations of the IL6R gene have been associated with metabolic syndrome.

LCT

A gene for lactose tolerance

Lactose tolerance is the ability to digest lactose, the sugar found in milk and dairy products.

LPL

A gene associated with HDL cholesterol levels

One of the alleles for this gene variant has been linked to elevated high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol levels which provide anti-inflammatory actions that can improve health.

MC4R

A gene associated with overeating

The MC4R gene is involved in the regulation of appetite.

MCT1

A gene for fatigue

Variations in this gene will alter the expression of MCT1. This will determine how quickly lactic acid accumulates during exercise.

MSTN

A gene for hypertrophy

Skeletal muscle growth in response to training is determined by genetics, and a rare version of the MSTN gene.

MSTNRARE

A gene for unusual muscle size and strength

A very rare version of the MSTNRARE gene is associated with greatly increased muscle growth.

MTHFR

A gene for folate metabolism

The MTHFR gene is one of the genes involved in the folate cycle. Variations of this gene influences how efficiently folate is processed.

MTHFR_SNP2

A gene associated with folate metabolism

MTHFR_SNP2 is one of the genes involved in the folate cycle. This variation of the gene influences how efficiently folate is processed through alterations in the enzyme activity.

MTR

A gene for homocysteine conversion

One of the genes tested for in the methionine cycle is the MTR gene. Variations of this gene influences how efficiently folate is processed.

MTRR

A gene for methionine production

Another genetic variant we test for in the methionine cycle is in the MTRR gene. Variations of this gene influences the maintenance of homocysteine levels.

NMB

A gene for disinhibited eating

Variations of the NMB gene are associated with disinhibited eating – the tendency to overeat in response to external or internal cues (e.g. emotions).

NOS3

A gene for blood flow

Variations in the NOS3 gene may influence the beneficial effects induced by exercise, such as a lowering of blood triglycerides levels.

PGC1A

A gene for aerobic capacity

As well as being a marker for good health, a high aerobic capacity enables your body to work harder during prolonged exercise. A variation in the PGC1A gene is associated with greater baseline aerobic fitness.

PPARA

A gene for fat burning

The ability to use fat as fuel combined with the distribution of fast and slow-twitch muscle fibres are important factors affecting endurance. The PPARA protein plays a role in these.

PPARG

A gene associated with fat and carb processing

Variants of the PPARG gene have been associated with insulin sensitivity and response to saturated fatty acid intake.

SHBG1

A gene for testosterone levels

The SHBG1 gene is one of the genes used in combination to determine your testosterone levels.

Note: the research cited for this gene is in reference to male testosterone levels. Due to differences in levels of sex hormones between men and women, the findings from these studies are not applicable to women.

SHBG2

A gene for testosterone levels

The SHBG2 gene is one of the genes used in combination to determine your testosterone levels.

Note: the research cited for this gene is in reference to male testosterone levels. Due to differences in levels of sex hormones between men and women, the findings from these studies are not applicable to women.

SLC30A8

A gene associated with fasting glucose levels

The SLC30A8 gene is involved in regulation of insulin. This variant impacts the SLC30A8 gene and may contribute to differences in fasting blood glucose responses.

UCP2

A gene for metabolism

Genetic variations in uncoupling proteins are thought to lead to differences in the efficiency of people's metabolism. We test for variations in the UCP2 and UCP3 genes.

UCP3

A gene for metabolism

Genetic variations in uncoupling proteins (UCPs) are thought to lead to differences in the efficiency of one's metabolism.

VDR

A gene for vitamin D processing/activation

Variations in the VDR gene have been associated with skeletal muscle strength.

VDR_Taq

A gene for response to vitamin D

Variations in the VDR gene have been associated with skeletal muscle strength.

VEGFA

A gene for blood vessel formation

Variations in the VEGFA gene have been associated with endurance ability.

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