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As well as being a marker for good health, a high aerobic capacity enables your body to work harder during prolonged exercise. A variation in the PGC1A gene is associated with greater baseline aerobic fitness.
Source: 1000 Genome Project. Global averages for both sexes
The PGC1A protein is associated with more aerobic-friendly slow-twitch muscle fibers, conversion of muscle fibers from fast-twitch to slow-twitch and generation of new mitochondria (the energy producers of the cell). The PGC1A protein has also been linked to higher rates of new blood vessel production (angiogenesis).